Foreign Words

  1.  Authors should follow a policy of strategic transliteration in use of foreign words in submitted manuscripts, including in References. To be specific, unless inclusion is important to focus, meaning, or argument, most non-English words should be translated into English without including the non-English word. The original language of a translated source in References should be noted in parentheses after the translation, as in (Arabic) or (Persian).
  2.  Place names and names of prominent figures should be spelled according to English norms. Foreign words in an unabridged English dictionary should be spelled as they appear in the dictionary, should not be italicized, and do not require the marking of ‘ayn or hamza, as in ulema, Shiite, sharia, and so forth.
  3.  All words in languages using non-Roman alphabets must be transliterated according to the JMEWS Transliteration Style Guide.
  4.  ‘Ayn is indicated by a single left “smart quote” (the key to the left of “1” on a keyboard). Hamza is indicated by a single right “smart quote,” or apostrophe (to the left of the “Enter” key on a keyboard).
  5.  Ta marbuta is rendered –a, not –ah, except in Persian, where it should be rendered–ih; the adjectival –ya followed by ta marbuta is rendered –iyya (–iyyih in Persian).
  6.  The letter l in <em”>al- is not assimilated to the following consonant.
  7.  Persian is transliterated according to the IJMES system, not that of the Encyclopaedia Iranica, so that i and u should be used rather than e and o. The Persian izafat is rendered as –i.
  8.  Authors are responsible for the consistency and accuracy of their transliterations.

Style Guide for Arabic, Hebrew and Persian

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